College and University endowments are necessary to maintain quality and excellence in American higher education. For more than 350 years, endowments have supported the mission of colleges and universities by providing funding to assist students; hire faculty; conduct research; construct facilities; and carry out other educational activities that would not have been possible if institutions had to rely solely on tuition, direct private philanthropy, or government funding.


There is a misperception by many that college and university endowments are simply slush funds that can be used by institutions however and whenever they please. There is particular attention being paid to private colleges' endowments. Many believe that most private nonprofit colleges and universities have billions in endowment funds, while in reality the median private college endowment is about $31.5 million, compared to $28.9 million at public colleges. (FY 2015 – IPEDS)

A variety of proposals on and off Capitol Hill suggest that federal legislation should either: (a) require mandatory endowment payouts to be used to lower tuition; or (b) impose a new tax on the endowments of private colleges.

In fact, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA) imposed a new 1.4% excise tax on private college endowment investment returns, based on a formula of endowment assets of $500,000 per Full Time Equivalent (FTE) student. Using the most recent IPEDS data, this affects approximately 28 private colleges.  Public colleges were excluded from this new tax.

The Treasury Department issued proposed guidance on how the tax will be assessed in 2019.  However, the proposed guidance relies heavily on current private foundation rules which have little to do with private, nonprofit colleges and universities.  The guidance acknowledges this and asks for community input on different guidance options,.  Final guidance is expected in 2020.

Endowments and Higher Education

Typically, endowments consist of hundreds – and, in many cases, thousands – of individual funds provided by charitable gifts, as well as some institutional funds that are invested to support an institution’s mission in perpetuity. A significant portion of an endowment is usually legally restricted by donors for specific educational or research purposes.

At private institutions, an average of 55 percent of endowment assets were restricted. While some may mistakenly believe institutions “hide” or “hoard” money in restricted accounts to avoid spending it, colleges and universities actually prefer unrestricted donations which provide them with the greatest flexibility to use funds that best achieve their mission over time.

In 2016, the House Ways and Means Subcommittee on Oversight took the lead in sending a questionnaire to 56 private colleges and universities with endowments over $1 billion.  The letter only went to private colleges; public colleges and universities with endowments greater than $1 billion were not contacted.  Each institution receiving the questionnaire successfully responded.  

While private colleges await final guidance, there continues to be bipartisan interest in Congress to repeal it.
In addition, the colleges and universities hit with this tax – as well as those close to being swept into the formula – sent a letter to the Hill asking for the repeal of the tax, or at least relief from its impact.

In the News

What you can do

  • Let your Members of Congress and their staffs know about the complexities of private college endowments. Educate legislators on their use, common restrictions, and average payout rates.
  • Urge your Members of Congress to cosponsor H.R. 4438, the Don't Tax Higher Education Act, sponsored by Reps. Brendan Boyle (D-PA) and Bradley Byrne (R-AL).


  • National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) Endowment Study (2/4/20)
  • Terry Hartle, American Council of Education, Testimony – House Ways and Means Committee (10/7/15)
  • Harvard University's Endowment webpage
  • Testimony submitted to the Senate Finance Committee on behalf of: the American Council on Education, the Association of American Universities, the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, and the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (10/10/07)

NAICU Contact

Karin Johns: Karin@NAICU.edu